Volume 5.04 | Feb 5

Mesenchymal Cell News 5.04 February 5, 2013
     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs 
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TOP STORY
CD271+ Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells May Provide a Niche for Dormant Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Scientists report that Mycobacterium tuberculosis may maintain long-term intracellular viability in a human bone marrow-derived CD271+/CD45 mesenchymal stem cell population in vitro. [Sci Transl Med]
Abstract | Press Release

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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)

SIRT1 Regulates Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells by Deacetylating β-Catenin
Researchers investigated whether the sirtuin SIRT1 had a function in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) by creating MSC specific SIRT1 knock-out (MSCKO) mice. Aged MSCKO mice showed defects in tissues derived from MSCs; i.e. a reduction in subcutaneous fat, cortical bone thickness and trabecular volume. [EMBO Mol Med] Full Article

TGF-β Mediates Homing of Bone Marrow-Derived Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Glioma Stem Cells
Using standard glioma models, scientists identified TGF-β as a tumor-factor that attracts bone-marrow human mesenchymal stem cells (BMhMSCs) via TGF-β receptors on BM-hMSCs. Using human and rat glioma stem cells (GSCs), they then show for the first time that intravascularly administered BM-hMSCs home to GSC-xenografts that express TGF-β. [Cancer Res] Abstract

Silencing of RB1 but Not of RB2/P130 Induces Cellular Senescence and Impairs the Differentiation Potential of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells
Stem cell senescence is considered deleterious because it may impair tissue renewal and function. On the other hand, senescence may arrest the uncontrolled growth of transformed stem cells and protect organisms from cancer. This double function of senescence is strictly linked to the activity of genes that the control cell cycle such as the retinoblastoma proteins RB1, RB2/P130, and P107. Scientists took advantage of the RNA interference technique to analyze the role of these proteins in the biology of mesenchymal stem cells. [Cell Mol Life Sci] Abstract

Prostaglandin E2 Potentiates Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Induced IL-10+IFN-γ+CD4+ Regulatory T Cells to Control Transplant Arteriosclerosis
The authors previously demonstrated that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) effectively control transplant arteriosclerosis by enhancing IL-10+ and IFN-γ+ cells. In this study, they elucidated the mechanism by which MSCs induce IL-10+IFN-γ+CD4+ regulatory T type 1-like cells. [J Immunol] Abstract

DPP Activates SMAD Signaling through Ca2+-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II in Undifferentiated Mesenchymal Cells
Dentin phosphophoryn (DPP) is a major noncollagenous protein in the dentin matrix. Researchers demonstrated that pluripotent stem cells such as C3H10T1/2 and HMSCs can be committed to the osteogenic lineage by DPP. [J Biol Chem] Abstract

Functional Tooth Restoration by Allogeneic Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Based Bio-Root Regeneration in Swine
Scientists used allogeneic dental mesenchymal stem cells to regenerate bioengineered tooth root (bio-root), and then installed a crown on the bio-root to restore tooth function. Root shape hydroxyapatite tricalcium phosphate scaffold containing dental pulp stem cells was covered by Vc-induced periodontal ligament stem cell sheet and implanted into a newly generated jaw bone implant socket. [Stem Cell Dev] Abstract

Spindle Shaped Human Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells from Amniotic Fluid Promote Neovascularization
Researchers demonstrated the capacity of spindle shaped amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem/stromal cells to support neovascularization by umbilical cord blood-derived endothelial colony derived cells in both in vitro and in vivo models. [PLoS One] Full Article

Activation and Promotion of Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells by Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha Preconditioning for Bone Tissue Engineering
Investigators demonstrated that tumor necrosis factor-alpha pre-conditioning increased proliferation, mobilization, and osteogenic differentiation of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells and up-regulated bone morphogenetic protein-2 protein levels. [J Cell Physiol] Abstract

Effects of Intravenous Administration of Allogenic Bone Marrow- and Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Functional Recovery and Brain Repair Markers in Experimental Ischemic Stroke
Allogenic mesenchymal stem cells were administered intravenously 30 minutes after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion to rats. Infarct volume and cell migration and implantation were analyzed by magnetic resonance imaging and immunohistochemistry. [Stem Cell Res Ther]
Abstract | Full Article | Press Release

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REVIEWS

Targeting Integrins to Promote Bone Formation and Repair
The author highlights the discovery that some integrins, a family of heterodimeric transmembrane proteins that can interact with matrix proteins and generate intracellular signals, can be targeted to promote homing of mesenchymal stromal cells to bone, osteogenic differentiation and bone formation. [Nat Rev Endocrinol] Abstract
INDUSTRY NEWS

Mesoblast Receives FDA Clearance for Phase II Clinical Trial of Mesenchymal Precursor Cells in Patients with Active Rheumatoid Arthritis
Regenerative medicine company Mesoblast Limited announced that it has received clearance from the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to commence a Phase II clinical trial evaluating a single intravenous infusion of allogeneic, or “off-the-shelf”, mesenchymal precursor cells for the treatment of active rheumatoid arthritis. [Mesoblast Limited] Press Release

Arteriocyte Receives FDA Approval to Initiate Cellular Therapy Trial for Treatment of Thermal Burn Wounds in Wounded Warriors
Arteriocyte announced approval from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to initiate a Phase I clinical trial using its Magellan® System technology in the treatment of thermal burn wounds. The FDA Investigational Device Exemption allows Arteriocyte and its clinical partners to initiate evaluation of autologous platelet gel (using the Magellan® Autologous Platelet Separator technology) as an adjunctive therapy for autologous skin grafting in patients with thermal injuries. [PR Newswire Association LLC.] Press Release

POLICY NEWS

National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)

EVENTS

NEW 17th International Congress of Developmental Biology
June 16-20, 2013
Cancun, Mexico

Visit
our events page to see a complete list of events in the mesenchymal cell community.

JOB OPPORTUNITIES

Postdoctoral Position – Tumorigenicity of Mesenchymal Stem Cells (Weizmann Institute of Science)

PhD Student – Stem Cells in Tooth Regeneration (King’s College London)

Postdoctoral Position – Stem Cell Biology (Johns Hopkins School of Medicine)

Postdoctoral Position – Human Stem Cell Engineering (University of Wisconsin – Madison)

Postdoctoral Position – Mesenchymal Cell Function in Chronic Lung Disease (German Research Center for Environmental Health)

Postdoctoral Position – Myeloproliferative Neoplasms (Mount Sinai Medical Center)

Postdoctoral Position – Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells in Acute Myeloid Leukemia (University of Bergen)

Postdoctoral Position – Cancer and Stem Cell Biology (University of Texas at Houston)


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