Volume 5.16 | Apr 30

Mesenchymal Cell News 5.16 April 30, 2013
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Recruitment of Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Prostate Tumors Promotes Metastasis
Researchers showed that CXCL16, a ligand for CXCR6, facilitates mesenchymal stem cell or very small embryonic-like cells recruitment into prostate tumors. CXCR6 signaling stimulates the conversion of mesenchymal stem cells into cancer-associated fibroblasts, which secrete stromal-derived factor-1, also known as CXCL12. CXCL12 expressed by cancer-associated fibroblasts then binds to CXCR4 on tumor cells and induces an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, which ultimately promotes metastasis to secondary tumor sites. [Nat Commun] Abstract

Achieve Superior Differentiation of Mouse MSC & MEF into Osteoblasts with the New MesenCult™ Osteogenic Stimulatory Kit (Mouse)
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)

Mesenchymal Stem Cells Attenuate Ischemic Acute Kidney Injury by Inducing Regulatory T Cells through Splenocyte Interactions
Investigators found that mesenchymal stem cells decrease serum creatinine and urea nitrogen levels, improve tubular injury, and downregulate IFN-γ production of T cells in the ischemic kidney. [Kidney Int] Full Article

Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Periapical Lesions Modulate Differentiation and Functional Properties of Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells
Using a model of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs), investigators showed that periapical lesions-mesenchymal stem cells inhibited differentiation of DCs via soluble factors, of which IL-6 had a minor effect, but did not impair their subsequent maturation induced by pro-inflammatory cytokines. [Eur J Immunol] Abstract

Myocilin Stimulates Osteogenic Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells through MAPK Signaling
Researchers report that myocilin is expressed in bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and plays a role in their differentiation into osteoblasts in vitro and in osteogenesis in vivo. Expression of myocilin was detected in MSCs derived from mouse, rat and human bone marrow with human MSCs exhibiting the highest level of myocilin expression. [J Biol Chem] Abstract

The Dual Effect of MSCs on Tumor Growth and Tumor Angiogenesis
Scientists investigated the influence of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) on the growth of pre-established tumors. Regardless of the tumor model and mode of hMSC injection, hMSC administration was always associated with decreased tumor growth due to an inhibition of tumor cell proliferation, likely resulting from deep modifications of the tumor angiogenesis. [Stem Cell Res Ther]
Abstract | Full Article | Press Release

Exosomes Released by Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells Protect Against Cisplatin-Induced Renal Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis In Vivo and In Vitro
Investigators focused on the protective effect of exosomes derived from human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hucMSC-ex) on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in vivo and in vitro. In vitro, treatment with cisplatin alone in rat renal tubular epithelial (NRK-52E) cells resulted in an increase in the number of apoptosis cells, oxidative stress and activation of the p38MAPK pathway followed by a rise in the expression of caspase3, and a decrease in cell multiplication, while those results were reversed in the hucMSCs-ex treated group. [Stem Cell Res Ther] Abstract | Full Article

Lipocalin-2-Mediated Upregulation of Various Antioxidants and Growth Factors Protects Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells against Unfavorable Microenvironments
The authors engineered mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with lipocalin 2 (Lcn2), a cytoprotective factor that is naturally induced following exposure of cells to stresses imposed by the microenvironment. Lcn2 overexpression not only did not interfere with the multidifferentiation capacity of the MSCs but also granted many protective properties to them. [Cell Stress Chaperon] Abstract

Comparative Study of Three Types of Polymer Materials Co-Cultured with Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Use as a Myocardial Patch in Cardiomyocyte Regeneration
Scientists investigated the most suitable polymer material for supporting stem cell growth as a myocardial patch. After cell isolation and expansion of mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, the cells were induced to differentiate into cardiomyocytes with 5-azacytidine to determine their differentiation potential. The results revealed that cell numbers were more abundant on both the polyurethane and 3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate material surfaces. [J Mater Sci-Mater M] Abstract

Cellular Interactions via Conditioned Media Induce In Vivo Nephron Generation from Tubular Epithelial Cells or Mesenchymal Stem Cells
Under a novel concept of cellular interactions via conditioned media (CMs), researchers have attempted in vivo nephron generation from tubular epithelial cells (TECs) or mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Their findings suggest that the cellular interactions via CMs might induce in vivo nephron generation from TECs or MSCs. [Biochem Bioph Res Co] Abstract

The Use of Hypoxic Cultured Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Oncolytic Virus Therapy
Using an in vitro coculture with human colon cancer cells and with intraperitoneally and subcutaneously developed human colon cancer xenografts, researchers demonstrated that hypoxic mesenchymal stem cells are able to protect conditionally replicative adenoviruses from attack by preexisting neutralizing antibodies, thereby successfully delivering them to the target tumor cells. [Cancer Gene Ther] Abstract

Self-Renewing Human Bone Marrow Mesenspheres Promote Hematopoietic Stem Cell Expansion
Scientists describe a method of isolating and culturing human bone marrow stromal stem/progenitor cells as nonadherent mesenchymal spheres. Human mesenspheres were derived from CD45 CD31 CD71 CD146+ CD105+ nestin+ cells but could also be simply grown from fetal and adult BM CD45-enriched cells. Human mesenspheres robustly differentiated into mesenchymal lineages. [Cell Reports]
Abstract | Full Article | Graphical Abstract

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Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy in Skin: Why and What For?
The authors contend that mesenchymal stem cells are not appropriate for cell replacement therapies in the context of wound healing. Indeed, engraftment of cells in the dermis is poor in the absence of irradiation and the observed effects seem mainly due to paracrine factors. [Exp Dermatol] Abstract

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Mesoblast Reports Positive Interim Results in Phase II Trial of Proprietary Adult Stem Cells for Intervertebral Disc Repair
Regenerative medicine company Mesoblast Limited announced that all 100 patients in its Phase II clinical trial of its proprietary mesenchymal precursor cells for intervertebral disc repair had completed six months of follow-up, the endpoint at which data will be evaluated for progression to Phase III. [Mesoblast Limited] Press Release

American CryoStem Marks Major Global Expansion Milestone: Receives First International Shipment of Adipose Tissue for Processing and Cryo-Storage from Hong Kong
American CryoStem Corporation announced receipt of its first commercial international shipment of adipose tissue for processing and long term cryo-storage. [American CryoStem Corporation] Press Release

TiGenix Reports Positive Phase IIa Study Results in Refractory Rheumatoid Arthritis with Allogeneic Stem Cell Product Cx611
TiGenix announced positive 6-month safety data of its Phase IIa study of Cx611 in rheumatoid arthritis, as well as a first indication of therapeutic activity on standard outcome measures and biologic markers of inflammation for at least three months after dosing. [TiGenix] Press Release

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NEW Mesenchymal Stem Cells
August 19-21, 2013
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NEW Researcher – Mesenchymal Stromal Cells as a Therapy for Graft versus Host Disease (Newcastle University)

Tenure-Track Investigator(s) – Musculoskeletal Biology or Diseases of Bone, Cartilage, or Muscle (National Institutes of Health)

Faculty Position – Developmental Biology and Regenerative Medicine (University of Washington School of Medicine)

Postdoctoral Position – Cardiopulmonary Molecular Biology (Hannover Medical School)

Price Gilbert, Jr. Chair – Regenerative Engineering and Medicine (Georgia Institute of Technology)

PhD and Postdoctoral Positions – Stem Cell Genetics (Universiti Putra Malaysia)

Cell Lab Technician – 3D Cell-Culture Matrices (Vienna University of Technology)

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