Volume 5.26 | Jul 9

Mesenchymal Cell News 5.26 July 9, 2013
Mesenchymal Cell News
     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs
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TOP STORY
mTORC2 Regulates Mechanically Induced Cytoskeletal Reorganization and Lineage Selection in Marrow Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells
Scientists asked if mTORC2 played a role in mechanical adaptation of the cytoskeleton. They found that during bi-axial strain induced cytoskeletal restructuring, mTORC2 and Akt co-localize with newly assembled focal adhesions. Disrupting the function of mTORC2, or that of its downstream substrate Akt, prevented mechanically-induced F-actin stress fiber development. [J Bone Miner Res] Abstract

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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Diet Derived Phenolic Acids Regulate Osteoblast and Adipocyte Lineage Commitment and Differentiation in Young Mice
Phenolic acids (PAs) are metabolites derived from polyphenols found in fruits and vegetables as a result of the actions of gut bacteria, and they were found in the serum of rats fed blueberry-containing diet. The authors conducted in vitro studies with PAs and demonstrated stimulation of osteoblast differentiation and proliferation. On the other hand, adipogenesis was inhibited. [J Bone Miner Res] Abstract

The Role of Bioactive 3D Hybrid Fibrous Scaffolds on Mechanical Behavior and Spatiotemporal Osteoblast Gene Expression
Three-dimensional bioactive organic-inorganic hybrid fibrous scaffolds are attractive extracellular matrix surrogates for bone tissue engineering. Osteoblast cells cultured on poly (e-caprolactone)/bioactive glass hybrid fibrous scaffolds spread with multiple attachments and actively proliferated suggesting that the low temperature in situ sol-gel and electrospinning process did not have a detrimental effect. [ACS Appl Mater Interfaces] Abstract

c-Abl-Dependent Molecular Circuitry Involving Smad 5 and Phosphatidylinositol 3 Kinase Regulates Bone Morpohogenetic Protein-2-Induced Osteogenesis
Using a pharmacological inhibitor and expression of dominant negative mutant of c-Abl, researchers showed an essential role of this tyrosine kinase in the development of bone nodules containing mature osteoblasts and formation of multinucleated osteoclasts in response to BMP-2. [J Biol Chem] Abstract | Full Article

Adipose Stromal/Stem Cells Assist Fat Transplantation Reducing Necrosis and Increasing Graft Performance
A rabbit subcutaneous adipose tissue regeneration model was developed to first evaluate graft quality at different times after implant focusing on related parameters, such as necrosis and vasculogenesis. Standard autologous fat transfer (AFT) was compared with a strategy where purified autologous adipose stromal/stem cells, combined with hyaluronic acid, assisted AFT. [Apoptosis] Abstract | Full Article

Comparative Analysis of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Surface Marker Expression for Human Dental Mesenchymal Stem Cells
Despite increasing interest in the clinical use of human dental mesenchymal stem cells, a well-defined specific marker has been absent for these stem cells. A comparative analysis with known mesenchymal stem cell surface markers such as STRO-1, CD90, CD146, CD34 and TfR was performed. The previously known positive and negative mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) markers, such as STRO-1, CD90, CD146 and CD34 showed comparative expression profiles of human dental MSC subtypes. [Regen Med] Abstract

Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Neuron-Like Cells Rescue Memory Deficits and Reduce Amyloid-Beta Deposition in an AbetaPP/PS1 Transgenic Mouse Model
Researchers used tricyclodecan-9-yl-xanthogenate to induce human mesenchymal stem cells isolated from Wharton’s jelly of the umbilical cord (HUMSCs) to differentiate into neuron-like cells (HUMSC-NCs), and transplanted the HUMSC-NCs into an AbetaPP/PS1 transgenic AD mouse model. They found that transplantation of HUMSC-NCs into AbetaPP/PS1 mice improved the cognitive function, increased synapsin I level and significantly reduced Abeta deposition in the mice. [Stem Cell Res Ther] Abstract | Full Article

Effective Combination of Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Minocycline in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Mice
Investigators evaluated whether the combination of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs) and a low dose minocycline could produce beneficial effects in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mice. The sensitivity of hBM-MSCs to minocycline was determined by an established cell viability assay. Minocycline-treated hBM-MSCs were also characterized by flow cytometry using MSC surface markers and analyzed for their multiple differentiation capacities. Minocycline did not affect the viability, surface phenotypes, or differentiation capacity of hBM-MSCs, while minocycline affected the viability of astrocytes at a high dose. [Stem Cell Res Ther] Abstract | Full Article

Cellular Function and Adhesion Mechanisms of Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes
Scientists investigated the ability of films of pristine multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) to influence human mesenchymal stem cells’ proliferation, morphology, and differentiation into osteoblasts. Results indicated that MWCNTs accelerated cell differentiation to a higher extent than tissue culture plastic, even in the absence of additional biochemical inducing agents. [Ann Biomed Eng] Abstract

MicroRNA Expression Profiling of Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells during Osteogenic Differentiation Reveals Osterix Regulation by miR-31
Researchers set out to investigate the changes in the microRNA (miRNA) expression that occur during the osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Their results define a miRNA signature characterizing the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs and provide evidence for the involvement of miR-31 in the regulation of the bone-specific transcription factor Osterix. [Gene] Abstract

Human Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell Gene Expression Patterns Vary with Culture Conditions
Researchers investigated gene expression patterns of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with different seeding densities and culture times. They found differences in the gene expression patterns of MSCs under different culture conditions. MSCs from 10-day cultures seeded at a low density were efficiently expanded, expressed podocalyxin-like protein, a6-integrin, a4-integrin, and leukemia inhibitory factor, and maintained properties like stemness and immunomodulation. [Blood Res] Full Article

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REVIEWS
Signaling Molecules and Pathways Involved in MSC Tumor Tropism
The authors discuss the key molecular mechanisms that govern the homing of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) to bone marrow, the mobilization of MSC to tumors and injured sites via circulation, and strategies that enhance MSC migration. [Histol Histopathol] Full Article

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the mesenchymal cell research field.
 
INDUSTRY NEWS
Fondation Leducq Awards $6 Million Grant for Global Research Network for Cardiac Regeneration
The Fondation Leducq in Paris, France awarded a $6 million grant award to a new global research network of cardiovascular scientists which includes three researchers from the Cardiovascular Research Center at Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. This new large grant was awarded as part of the Fondation Leducq’s Transatlantic Networks of Excellence in Cardiovascular Research Program. Network researchers will aim to identify cellular and molecular targets to help advance cardiac regeneration therapeutics. [The Mount Sinai Hospital] Press Release

NIST Announces New Scaffold Reference Material for Tissue Engineering Research
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has issued a new reference material-a sort of standardized sample-of cellular scaffolds for use in tissue engineering research. The new NIST reference material is designed as a common ground for research labs, a well-understood, uniform scaffold that can be used as a baseline or control in experiments that measure factors such as cell adhesion and proliferation. [The National Institute of Standards and Technology] Press Release

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POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW The 7th UK Mesenchymal Stem Cell (MSC) Meeting
September 12-13, 2013
Birmingham, United Kingdom

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the mesenchymal cell community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Postdoctoral Fellowships – Tissue Regeneration and Molecular Cell Engineering Lab (UT MD Anderson Cancer Center)

Postdoctoral Position – Cardiopulmonary Molecular Biology (Hannover Medical School)

Two PhD Students and One Postdoc – Molecular Cell Biology and Hematopoiesis (Sanquin)

PhD Positions – Tissue Engineering (Eight European Research Institutes)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Visualization of Gene Expression Promoting Mesenchymal Stem Cell Tropism (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)

Director of Cell Processing Facility (S L Collins Associates, Inc.)


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