Volume 6.41 | Oct 28

Mesenchymal Cell News 5.41 October 28, 2014
Mesenchymal Cell News
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Mohawk Promotes the Tenogenesis of Mesenchymal Stem Cells through Activation of the TGFβ Signaling Pathway
Researchers found that Mohawk (Mkx) expression level was dramatically lower in human tendinopathy tissue and is activated at specific stages of tendon development. In mesenchymal stem cells, ectopic Mkx expression strikingly promoted tenogenesis more efficiently than Scleraxis, a well-known master transcription factor of tendon. [Stem Cells] Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Attenuate Graft-versus-Host Disease and Maintain Graft-versus-Leukemia Activity following Experimental Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplantation
Investigators defined the effects and underlying mechanisms of human, marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) on graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) and graft-versus-leukemia activity. Irradiated B6D2F1 mice given C57BL/6 BM and splenic T-cells and treated with hMSCs had reduced systemic GvHD, donor T-cell expansion, and serum TNFα and IFNγ levels. [Stem Cells] Abstract

Impaired B Cell Inhibition by Lupus Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Is Caused by Reduced CCL2 Expression
Scientists show that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from lupus-like mice and systemic lupus erythematosus patients had an impairment in suppressing normal B cell proliferation and differentiation, which was caused by the reduction of CCL2 levels. Knockdown of CCL2 in normal MSC damaged their suppressive capacity for B cells. [J Immunol] Abstract

Immune Impairments in Multiple Myeloma Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stromal Cells
The authors investigated the mechanisms that underlie multiple myeloma (MM) bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) abnormalities. They demonstrate that MM BM-MSCs exhibit abnormal expression of CD40/40L, VCAM1, ICAM-1, LFA-3, HO-1, HLA-DR and HLA-ABC. [Cancer Immunol Immunother] Abstract

Determination of the Chondrogenic Differentiation Processes in Human Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Genetically Modified to Overexpress TGF-β via rAAV Vectors
Researchers evaluated the potential of overexpressing the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) via recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector-mediated gene transfer to promote the chondrogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells. [Hum Gene Ther] Abstract

Melatonin Pretreatment Improves the Survival and Function of Transplanted Mesenchymal Stem Cells after Focal Cerebral Ischemia
The authors examined the effect of melatonin pretreatment on mesenchymal stem cell (MSCs) under ischemia-related conditions in vitro and after transplantation into ischemic rat brain. They show that melatonin pretreatment greatly increased survival of MSCs in vitro and reduced their apoptosis after transplantation into ischemic brain. [Cell Transplant] Full Article

Distribution of Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Effects on Neuronal Survival and Axon Regeneration after Optic Nerve Crush and Cell Therapy
Scientists investigated the therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stem cells injected into the vitreous body in a model of optic nerve injury. Cell therapy significantly increased the number of Tuj1- and Brn3a-positive cells in the retina and the number of axons distal to the crush site at 16 and 28 days after optic nerve crush, although the RGC number decreased over time. [PLoS One] Full Article

Hepatoma SK Hep-1 Cells Exhibit Characteristics of Oncogenic Mesenchymal Stem Cells with Highly Metastatic Capacity
Investigators evaluated whether mesenchymal cells might contribute to human liver primary cancers. They found that classical mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) markers were presented on SK Hep-1 cells (SK cells), but endothelial marker CD31, hematopoietic markers CD34 and CD45 were negative. SK cells are capable of differentiation into adipocytes and osteoblasts as adipose-derived MSCs and bone marrow-derived MSCs do.
[PLoS One]
Full Article

Mesenchymal Stem Cells and a Vitamin D Receptor Agonist Additively Suppress T-Helper 17 Cells and Related Inflammatory Response in the Kidney
The individual and combined effects of mesenchymal stem cells and the vitamin D receptor agonist paricalcitol on T-helper 17 induction were investigated in vitro and in a mouse model of sterile kidney inflammation.
[Am J Physiol Renal Physiol]

Infusion of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Protects Lung Transplants from Cold Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Mice
Researchers tested the efficacy of mesenchymal stem cells in the prevention of cold ischemia-reperfusion injury using a novel murine model of orthotopic lung transplantation. [Lung] Abstract

Comparative Analysis of Rat Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from Slow and Fast Skeletal Muscle In Vitro
Skeletal muscle comprises different kinds of muscle fibers that can be classified as slow and fast fibers. Investigators compared the yield, proliferation, and multi-potentiality of rat mesenchymal stem cells from the tibialis anterior (fast muscle) and soleus (slow muscle) in vitro. [Int Orthop] Abstract

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Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells: New Therapeutic Weapons for Idiopathic Dilated Cardiomyopathy?
The authors summarize cell therapy studies for ‘idiopathic’ dilated cardiomyopathy, with a focus on recent advances that highlight the vascular potential exhibited by umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells. [Int J Cardiol] Abstract

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Global Controls in Stem Cells
The New York Stem Cell Foundation Research Institute Announces Largest-Ever Stem Cell Repository
The New York Stem Cell Foundation Research Institute will provide for the first time the largest-ever number of stem cell lines available to the scientific research community. Initially, over 600 induced pluripotent stem cell lines and 1,000 cultured fibroblasts from over 1,000 unique human subjects will be made available, with an increasing number available in the first year. [New York Stem Cell Foundation] Press Release

Global Stem Cells Group Announces Launch of Official Regenestem Network Website
Global Stem Cells Group has announced the launch of the official Regenestem Network website, dedicated to promoting the world’s largest and most recognizable membership organization of regenerative medicine practitioners. [Global Stem Cells (PR Web)] Press Release

UC San Diego Named Stem Cell “Alpha Clinic”
In a push to further speed clinical development of emerging stem cell therapies, Sanford Stem Cell Clinical Center at UC San Diego Health System was named one of three new “alpha clinics” by the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine. [UC San Diego Health System] Press Release

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National Institutes of Health (United States)

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Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW 16th International Congress on Hormonal Steroids and Hormones and Cancer
December 2-4, 2014
Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the mesenchymal cell community.
NEW Postdoctoral Position – Therapeutic Potential of Mesenchymal Stem Cells (IRSN – French Nuclear Safety Institute)

Assistant/Associate Research Scientist – Bone Healing and Metabolism (New York University)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Collaborative Training Program in Musculoskeletal Health Research (Western University)

Quality Improvement Coordinator – Regenerative Medicine (The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston)

Research Associate Position – Skeletal Research Center (Case Western Reserve University)

PhD Studentship – Biophysics and Mechanics of Stem Cells (Queen Mary University of London)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Chondrocyte Differentiation and Its Role in Osteoarthritis (NYU Langone Medical Center)

Faculty Positions – Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine (Baylor College of Medicine)

Postdoctoral Position – Cardiopulmonary Molecular Biology (Hannover Medical School)

Scientist – Myogenic Progenitor Cell Biology (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Pluripotent Stem Cell Media Development, High Throughput Screening (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Cell Culture Support Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Immunology/Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

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